Restart Gyumri

Initiative Centre NGO

The need for education reforms. A new state measure of republic education. Aida Sargsian

“We live in a historical period where changes are so accelerated that we begin to see the present only when it has completely disappeared.

Ronald David Laing

Not only the world is changing, but also our ideas about it. During the last 20 years, serious changes have been made in geopolitics, geopolitics and geocultural spaces.

The requirements concern both the goals and content of education, educational technologies, and management formats of technological educational institutions, allocation of resources and content; rational use, the role of the state and the philosophy of education in general;

All over the world, educational reforms depend on the formation and development of competences.

And what is competence?

It is very clear from the research that it is much more clear that the high level of intelligence. In the 21st century, in addition to knowledge, a person needs competencies in order to work effectively, make correct decisions and act according to the situation. Combinations of educational individuals are characteristics of knowledge, attitudes and values ​​that allow them to successfully solve certain problems. The researches of the systems of the countries with high results in mathematics, high level of applicants for higher education, and high educational efficiency according to the results of international evaluations have shown that the efficiency has been developed by the educational culture. Leaders in education form problems of different educational systems.

Now let’s present the competencies and key directions underlying the educational content of the leading countries in the field of education. Let’s also consider the educational policy of RA, because our country, adopting the best experience of the leading countries, has put the key logic and competencies of those countries’ success as the basis of the new standard.

Armenia. The need for educational reforms in RA is due to the existing problems of general education, which cannot be solved without fundamental changes. 2021 on February 4, the Government approved the new standard of general education. The researchers took into account the key competences of the educational system of the leading countries in the field of education, the supporting components and included them in the basis of the new standard of public education.

Educational competencies are:

• language literacy,
• learn to learn,
• self-cognitive and social,
• democratic and civil,
• digital and media,
• cultural,
• mathematical, scientific and technical,
• economic ability.

The standard defines the expected end results of the student’s studies, which are aimed at the formation of the mentioned 8 key competencies. The results are formulated for different educational levels of the school.

The results should be:

• clearly formulated, perceived as equal,
• available
• continuous and evolving,
• measurable.

Canada. Canada is considered one of the world leaders in the quality of literacy development. Leads in reading and mathematical literacy, scientific literacy, ICT literacy and is universal in competencies (critical thinking, creativity, etc.). Core competencies have been selected to update curricula that have a significant impact on an individual’s educational success, relationships with others, employment opportunities, health, and overall well-being.

The components of educational competencies are:

• character education,
• civic education,
• cooperation,
• creativity,
• communication,
• critical thinking and problem solving.

Finland. Finland is in the leading position in terms of “formal education”. Finland’s education system is one of the best in the world in terms of matching people’s skills to the needs of the economy. Despite its small size, Finland’s economy is one of the most successful in the world. Finland strives for educational goals to meet the needs of the economy. The reform program was built for about 20 years. 7 common / cross-cutting competencies were identified, which were included in the curriculum and are formed from all subjects. Finnish researchers pay special attention to the competence “learning to learn”, considering it a cornerstone for the entire educational process. This competence applies to education as a whole and is not limited to any field or subject. It guides the educational process and influences the academic achievement of learners. The competence to “learn to learn” becomes a factor in lifelong learning, determining an individual’s cognitive aptitudes and desire for self-development. Finnish researchers distinguish the following main components of “learning to learn” competence:

• thinking abilities, problem solving skills,
• attitudes and values ​​related to school and the educational process,
• striving for knowledge as a special way of thinking.

Expected learning outcomes are defined for each of the competencies. Educational competencies are:

• learn to learn,
• media literacy,
• self-care,
• ICT literacy,
• career development,
• involvement, participation in building the future.

China. The education system in China is undergoing significant changes. Reforms began in the 1980s, and in just 33 years, China has gone that way, so that other developed countries, such as France, the United States, Germany, have passed a whole century. Before the reforms, about 23% of the population were completely illiterate, today this figure is only 5%. Competency development in the Chinese education system is built into general learning, including core elements from subject knowledge to outlook and character development.

Educational competencies are:

• self-development (learning ability, healthy lifestyle),
• cultural foundations (philanthropy, scientific approach),
• social involvement (responsibility, innovation).

Korea. The Republic of Korea is considered a developing country, yet its economy is internationally known for its high technology and financial aspects. 68% of South Korean citizens aged 25-34 have at least a bachelor’s degree, which is the highest among the world’s economically developed countries. Characteristics of a competent learner:

Self-management. Manages own life, has identity and self-confidence based on abilities and qualifications necessary for life and professional growth.

Work with knowledge and information. Processes and applies the knowledge and data obtained from various sources for the rational solution of practical problems.

Creative thinking. Makes discoveries by integrating knowledge, skills and experience from various sources.
Aesthetics and emotionality. Finds and accepts the meanings and values ​​of life by experiencing others and understanding their cultural characteristics.

Listens to others respectfully and communicates effectively. Expresses one’s thoughts and feelings in different situations of life.

Civil literacy. Actively participates in changing the society for the better, having the values ​​of the national and world community.

In general, innovations in the education system are effective and imperative. Even in the most developed countries in the world, changes are regularly made in the field of education. The degree of development and well-being of any country depends on the educational policy of that country. We hope that the new educational system we have adopted also corresponds to our national characteristics and values, and will be able to solve the problems in the education sector.

To conclude, let us quote the words of Nelson Mandela: “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world.”


Communication in the education management system

In the 21st century, the role of communications in the management system is extremely important. Communication in the educational organization should contribute to the formation of communication competences of the heads of educational institutions, related to the effective use of communicative interaction tools, principles, and models in the educational process and management.

The communication environment of the educational institution. In the communication environment of an educational institution, we understand a set of conditions that ensure a certain quality of education:

• A system of basic values ​​and attitudes (the mission of the school, goals and values ​​of education, norms and principles, etc.),
• Methods of working with relevant information for the educational institution,
• Connections and interactions between the participants of the educational process (communication strategies, teaching and management styles, evaluation and promotion methods, etc.).

Communication between management loops and levels is carried out through information. Information can be both external and internal. External information characterizes the relationship of the organization with the environment and is contained in orders, instructions, orders, plans, scientific and technical achievements, reports on market indicators, etc. Internal information refers to the production process, equipment condition, technology, etc. Information is of great importance for the management of internal and external relations of the organization. The characteristics of the degree of mastery of information are

• Amount or completeness of information,
• Its significance,
• Reliability,
• Reliability,
• Being comprehensible,
• modernity,
• Flexibility,
• The economic efficiency of the information process (the ratio of the profit received from the information and the costs incurred on it);
• Ensuring the protection of information.

Communications can have two directions: top-down (downstream) and vice-versa bottom-up (upstream). Communication is top-down, when information from a higher level of management is communicated to a lower level. Information about current issues, various tasks, as well as changes in the priority of work to be done, etc., is communicated to lower levels of management. In addition to the mentioned downward exchange, upward communication is carried out in organizations. That is, the transfer of information from the lower levels to the higher ones, thanks to which the latter are informed about the issues and the situation at the lower levels and offer possible options for their elimination (regulation). Upstream information exchange mainly takes place in the form of reports, recommendations, alerts, reports, in addition to downstream and upstream information.

The information process can be divided into four main elements.

a) Sending person (communicator) who develops ideas or collects and communicates information,
b) Message – the actual information coded with special symbols,
c) A way (channel) to communicate information or an idea,
d) Recipient who receives the information and interprets it.

These are the interrelated stages of the communication process

  1. The birth of an idea,
  2. Encoding and channel selection,
  3. Reporting
  4. Reception and decoding (decoding).

Feedback is extremely important for ensuring the effectiveness of the communication process. This determines how reliable the message was perceived.

Now about interpersonal communication. One of the important conditions for the effectiveness of interpersonal communication and, in general, human communication, is the so-called “communication” of a person, that is, the ability with which a person establishes normal relationships with others, adequately formulates what he has to say, communicates and receives information, accurately deciphering them, distinguishing what is important and the secondary, providing proper direct feedback.

It should be noted that communication is a very necessary ability for a manager, because communication with people, subordinates, colleagues, and superiors is an integral part of his daily activities. In our opinion, among the many types of information exchange between a manager and a subordinate are:

• Specification of problems, recommendations and expected results,
• Ensuring the department’s participation in problem solving,
• Discussion of work efficiency issues,
• Informing the subordinates about the expected changes, etc.

There are two systems of dialogue between manager and subordinates, vertical and horizontal. The vertical communication system of manager-subordinate relationship can be presented in the form of the following diagram:

The horizontal communication system of manager-subordinate relationship can be represented with the help of the following diagram.

Both individual and interpersonal communications may encounter barriers, among which are:

  1. Barriers caused by perception,
  2. Semantic barriers,
  3. Poor quality feedback,
  4. Bad listening,
  5. Different types of noise.

Thus, interpersonal communications are vitally necessary for the effective operation of information within the entire organization, for the successful solution of management problems.


  1. Asatryan L., Karapetyan A. and others, Fundamentals of Education System Management, part 1, Yerevan, 2003.
  2. Khachatryan R., Hovhannisyan S. and others, Management skills, Yerevan, 2020.
  3. Hovhannisyan A., Fundamentals of Management, Yerevan, 2015.
  4. Hovhannisyan T., Khachatryan L., Human resources management, Yerevan, 2013.
  5. Suvaryan Yu., Management, Yerevan, 2002.

The article was written by Aida Sargsian, a participant in the second round of the “Article Contest” organized by the “Restart Gyumri” Initiative Center NGO.

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